By Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con
''Animal Waste Containment in Lagoons'' presents a complete view of the state of the art perform of animal waste containment and offers instructions for destiny study thoughts. Practitioners within the following disciplines: water assets, environmental, geotechnical, and agricultural engineering will locate this guide to be very worthwhile. subject matters lined comprise: destiny of nitrogen compounds in animal waste lagoons; Seepage and shipping via anaerobic lagoon liners; Clogging of animal waste lagoon liners; comparing seepage losses and liner functionality at animal waste lagoons utilizing water stability equipment; Use of coal combustion by-products as low permeability liners for manure garage amenities; and Air caliber concerns linked to farm animals creation
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Ammonification results in an increase in pH, and if the ammonium concentration and pH are sufficiently high, it can lead to volatilization of ammonia into air. The distribution of NH3 and NH4+ in an aqueous system is largely controlled by the pH of the system. Ammonia is highly soluble in water with an aqueous solubility of approximately 340 g/L at 20°C and 1 atm (Merck Index 1983). Ammonia acts as a weak base in water: NH3 + H2O *=> NH4+ + OH- Kb = 1(T4 77 (20°C, 1 atm) A high solution pH would, therefore, drive the equilibrium toward the presence of ammonia in the neutral NH3 form (Figure 2-2).
0 and a summertime water temperature of 30°C, approximately 60% of ammonia nitrogen exists in the NH3 form. Long detention times allow for continued and effective removal of nitrogen by volatilization over the long term. Assuming ammonia volatilization as the primary removal mechanism, nitrogen removal in lagoons can be related to pH, detention time, and temperature according to the following two equations. Eq. (2-3) was developed assuming plug flow conditions in the lagoon (Reed 1985), while Eq.
The optimum temperature for biological nitrification ranges between 30°C and 35°C. Nitrification slows down considerably at temperatures lower than 5°C or higher than 40°C. Nitrification rates in temperate climates are slow in summer and winter and are highest in spring and fall (Paul and Clark 1989). Nitrification kinetics have been modeled using zero-order, first-order, and the Monod equation for limiting substrate. Eq. 4 Denitrification Losses of nitrogen in animal waste lagoons may also occur in the form of nitrogen gas as a result of the ammonification-nitrification-denitrification sequence of reactions.
Animal waste containment in lagoons by Lakshmi N. Reddi, American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Animal Waste con