By Albert R. Baswell
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In general, it is physically impossible to maintain both muscle length and force constant when external loads vary; in this situation the action of the two feedback loops will oppose each other. For example, an increased load force will lengthen the muscle and cause muscular force to increase as the muscle is stretched out on its length-tension curve. The increased length will lead to excitation of motoneurons, whereas the increased force will lead to inhibition. It follows that the net regulatory action conveyed by skeletomotor output will depend on some relationship between force change and length change and on the strength of the feedback from muscle spindles and tendon organs.
06P50 (µ). (81) In the case of a zonal flow ψ(µ), we can use equation Kt = − S 1 − µ2 (uv) dU dS − dµ µ S 1 − µ2 (uv)U dS (82) that describes the evolution of the kinetic energy (41) of a disturbance ψ ′ (λ, µ, t) to the zonal flow on sphere S where U =− 1 − µ2 ψ µ , u = − 1 − µ2 ψ ′µ , v= 1 1 − µ2 ψ ′λ (83) are the velocity components of the basic flow and disturbance, respectively. Usually, the maximum values of the amplitude of unstable mode are localized in the regions related with characteristic features of the basic velocity U (µ).
169], we obtain − → → − → − → − u · U = ( k × ∇Ψ) · ( k × ∇f ) = ∇Ψ · ∇f → − → − because k · ∇f = 0 and ∇Ψ · k = 0. Therefore, it follows from (73) that → − → − u · U dS = ∇Ψ · ∇f dS = ∇Ψ, ∇f = 0. S S We now show that amplitude Ψ of any non-neutral or non-stationary mode is orthogonal to the RH wave f in the L2 -inner product (10) as well: Ψ, f = 0. , is a homogeneous spherical polynomial of degree n. Therefore, using operator (38), Dn Ψ ≡ (∆ + χn )Ψ, and formula (30) we obtain J(f, Dn Ψ), fn = −C J(µ, Dn Ψ), fn = C (Dn Ψ)λ , fn = 0, (76) since (Dn Ψ)λ is orthogonal to Hn , that is, orthogonal to any homogeneous spherical polynomial of the degree n.
Advances in Mathematics Research, Vol. 10 by Albert R. Baswell