By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development
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Extra resources for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development
The characteristics of the HLW during storage were calculated by means of the CESAR code . Applying actinide decay chains with about 100 isotopes from 206Pb to 257Fm, this code calculates quantities such as activity, decay heat, neutron source strength, and radiotoxicity up to one million years. The library of the code includes 208 explicit fission products from 72Zn to 166mHo and 125 activation products. CESAR is particularly suited for this application because it accounts for the necessary number of explicit fission products for accurately predicting activity and decay heat, and can deal with the spontaneous fissions in californium which contributes significantly to the neutron emission of multi-recycled minor actinide fuels.
2002), Standardisation des outils de calcul pour les ADS et leur application à différents scénarios de transmutation des déchets, PhD thesis No. 2714, EPFL, Lausanne.  González, E. et al. (2001), “TRU transmutation studies for phase-out scenarios based on fast neutron ADS systems”, Presented on the ADTTA 2001, Nuclear Applications in the New Millennium, Reno, Nevada, 11-15 November 2001.  Takaki, N. et al. (2003), “ORIENT-Cycle – Evolutional Recycle Concept with Fast Reactor for Minimising High-Level Waste”, in NEA (2003), Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, Proc.
Promising results have been already achieved in development and pilot plant tests of LILW vitrification, especially in its “cold crucible” variant. 3 High-level radioactive waste Origin and constitution of HLW Most of the HLW originates from the reprocessing of spent fuel. The details of the HLW stream, in terms of chemical and isotopic composition of fission products and TRU elements, result from the exact operating conditions along the fuel cycle including enrichment at the isotopic separation plant, burn-up level in the reactor, separation factors at the reprocessing plants.
Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development by Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development