By Richard Crandall, Marvin Levich, H. Rheingold
Computer expertise has turn into a reflect of what we're and a monitor on which we undertaking either our hopes and our fears for a way the realm is altering. past during this century, really within the post-World warfare II period of exceptional progress and prosperity, the social agreement among citi zens and scientists/engineers was once epitomized by means of the road Ronald Reagan promoted as spokesman for basic electrical: "Progress is our so much impor tant product. " in additional fresh many years, post-Chernobyl, post-Challenger, post-Bhopal, post-Microsoft, the social agreement has gone through a transfor mation. extra individuals are doubtful, anxious, and downright against the suggestion that extra know-how promises a greater lifestyles. what's a "better life"? Who advantages and who loses whilst new applied sciences switch the best way we are living, paintings, examine, and play? Who has a say within the approach applied sciences are designed and deployed? the place are we going, are we definite we wish to cross there, and who has the ability to do something approximately itt From the early days of the railroads, into the period of electrification, throughout the McLuhan age, a lot of the discourse approximately know-how has been hype, utopianism, and what a few historians have referred to as "the rhetoric of the technological elegant. " now we have stumbled on, besides the fact that, that no longer each person gain economically or politically from technological change.
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Extra resources for A Network Orange: Logic and Responsibility in the Computer Age
20 A Network Orange We believe that circumventing the conspiracy of parts in any way other than by the nanotechnology asymptote will necessarily involve adaptive machinery that encompasses various grand features of biological evolution. One potentially formidable synthesis would be the marriage of nanotechnology with quantum computation Imagine a nano-quantum computer as "ultrabiological" in that computations would proceed unthinkably fast, with memory expanding effortlessly to unprecedented levels.
This myopia is especially prevalent in older chess software for which most of the algorithmic effort goes into tactics-that is, into local combinations confined to the relative hot -spots in play space 9 A second AI problem of extreme difficulty is speech recognition. The goal is for computing machinery to "understand" actual vocal speech. This goal is very much harder than the one set out for the ELIZA system, for example, in which the human subject types in English sentences. The speech is to be spoken into an input peripheral (microphone); then the computing machinery; ideally in real time,lO parses the speech.
Frey (1983, pp. 131-132) cites an instance where Fischer himself discovered a profound, nontrivial continuation in a middlegame against Viktor Korchnoi. And this was in five-minute speed chess. no less. 9 For example, many commercial chess programs can be beaten m the following way. A long-term attack on the machine's castled King pOSition may not raise the machines internal alarm until it is too late to defend against your slow attack Minor pieces and pawns, perhaps, can be brought to bear down on the machine's King, but with such delay and finesse that the program remains oblivlOus to the attack until it is too late.
A Network Orange: Logic and Responsibility in the Computer Age by Richard Crandall, Marvin Levich, H. Rheingold