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By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

ISBN-10: 029910740X

ISBN-13: 9780299107406

A definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views

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74 Supported by this opposition movement Maurice of Orange, the Stadholder of five of the seven provinces of the Republic and the most important advocate of a more militant foreign policy, had Oldenbarnevelt arrested in August 1618 and executed as a traitor the following year. The Synod of Dordrecht (Dord), an assembly of Dutch divines (November 1618- May 1619), also attended by the representatives of a number of foreign reformed churches (for example England, Scotland, the Palatinate, some Swiss cantons, and Bremen), sealed the triumph of the war party's theological wing, the strictly Calvinist Counter-Remonstrants, over the more liberal Remonstrants who, inspired by Arminius, had sought Oldenbarnevelt's protection.

Moreover, under the impact of competition from Flemish textile manufacturers in the Spanish-controlled southern provinces, Dutch textile production had not benefited from the increased opportunities for export as much as expected. In some places it was in fact struck by a severe crisis due not only to Flemish and English competition but also to a change in the structure of demand for cloth. Lighter and cheaper fabrics were now favoured. Dutch manufacturing towns such as Leiden, Haarlem, Delft and Gouda had been struck particularly hard by the crisis in textile production and it was here that opposition to the peace policy of the leading statesman of the period, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, was strongest.

They held both the imperial crown and vast territorial possessions to the east and south of Bavaria and in south-western Germany (in Upper Swabia, the Breisgau and Alsace) . Not only were the Habsburg neighbours too close for comfort, but Bavaria's status in the Imperial Diet was also unsatisfactory. Bavaria did not belong to the exclusive circle of prince electors, and thus remained a second-rate power according to the offical hierarchical order. However, if Maximilian of Bavaria (1598-1651) could manage, by taking a radical Catholic stance, to become the spokesman for all those, mostly ecclesiastical, Catholic princes who either felt threatened by their Protestant neighbours or were inclined to call for a Catholic 'roll-back', his influence would greatly increase.

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A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades by Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

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